NCGS CHAPTER 20, ARTICLE 15A
New Motor Vehicles Warranties Act
§ 20-351. Purpose.
This Article shall provide State and private remedies against
motor vehicle manufacturers for persons injured by new motor vehicles
failing to conform to express warranties.
(1987, c. 385.)
§ 20-351.1. Definitions.
As used in this Article:
(1) "Consumer" means the purchaser, other than for purposes
of resale, or lessee from a commercial lender, lessor, or from
a manufacturer or dealer, of a motor vehicle, and any other person
entitled by the terms of an express warranty to enforce the obligations
of that warranty.
(2) "Manufacturer" means any person or corporation, resident
or nonresident, who manufactures or assembles or imports or distributes
new motor vehicles which are sold in the State of North Carolina.
(3) "Motor vehicle" includes a motor vehicle as defined in G.S.
20-4.01 which is sold or leased in this State, but does not include
"house trailer" as defined in G.S. 20-4.01 or any motor vehicle
with a gross vehicle weight of 10,000 pounds or more.
(4) "New motor vehicle" means a motor vehicle for which a certificate
of origin, as required by G.S. 20-52.1 or a similar requirement
in another state, has never been supplied to a consumer, or which
a manufacturer, its agent, or its authorized dealer states in
writing is being sold as a new motor vehicle.
(1987, c. 385; 1989, c. 43, s. 2, c. 519, s. 2.)
§ 20-351.2. Require repairs; when mileage warranty begins
(a) Express warranties for a new motor vehicle shall remain in
effect at least one year or 12,000 miles. If a new motor vehicle
does not conform to all applicable express warranties for a period
of one year, or the term of the express warranties, whichever is
greater, following the date of original delivery of the motor vehicle
to the consumer, and the consumer reports the nonconformity to the
manufacturer, its agent, or its authorized dealer during such period,
the manufacturer shall make, or arrange to have made, repairs necessary
to conform the vehicle to the express warranties, whether or not
these repairs are made after the expiration of the applicable warranty
(b) Any express warranty for a new motor vehicle expressed in
terms of a certain number of miles shall begin to accrue from the
mileage on the odometer at the date of original delivery to the
(1987, c. 385; 1989, c. 14.)
§ 20-351.3. Replacement or refund; disclosure requirement.
(a) When the consumer is the purchaser or a person entitled by
the terms of the express warranty to enforce the obligations of
the warranty, if the manufacturer is unable, after a reasonable
number of attempts, to conform the motor vehicle to any express
warranty by repairing or correcting, or arranging for the repair
or correction of, any defect or condition or series of defects or
conditions which substantially impair the value of the motor vehicle
to the consumer, and which occurred no later than 24 months or 24,000
miles following original delivery of the vehicle, the manufacturer
shall, at the option of the consumer, replace the vehicle with a
comparable new motor vehicle or accept return of the vehicle from
the consumer and refund to the consumer the following:
(1) The full contract price including, but not limited to, charges
for undercoating, dealer preparation and transportation, and installed
options, plus the non-refundable portions of extended warranties
and service contracts;
(2) All collateral charges, including but not limited to, sales
tax, license and registration fees, and similar government charges;
(3) All finance charges incurred by the consumer after he first
reports the nonconformity to the manufacturer, its agent, or its
authorized dealer; and
(4) Any incidental damages and monetary consequential damages.
(b) When consumer is a lessee, if the manufacturer is unable, after
a reasonable number of attempts, to conform the motor vehicle to
any express warranty by repairing or correcting, or arranging for
the repair or correction of, any defect or condition or series of
defects or conditions which substantially impair the value of the
motor vehicle to the consumer, and which occurred no later than
24 months or 24,000 miles following original delivery of the vehicle,
the manufacturer shall, at the option of the consumer, replace the
vehicle with a comparable new motor vehicle or accept return of
the vehicle from the consumer and refund the following:
(1) To the consumer:
a. All sums previously paid by the consumer under the terms
of the lease;
b. All sums previously paid by the consumer in connection
with entering into the lease agreement, including, but not limited
to, any capitalized cost reduction, sales tax, license and registration
fees, and similar government charges; and
c. Any incidental and monetary consequential damages.
(2) To the lessor, a full refund of the lease price, plus an
additional amount equal to five percent (5%) of the lease price,
less eighty-five percent (85%) of the amount actually paid by
the consumer to the lessor pursuant to the lease. The lease price
means the actual purchase cost of the vehicle to the lessor.
In the case of a refund, the leased vehicle shall be returned
to the manufacturer and the consumer's written lease shall be
terminated by the lessor without any penalty to the consumer.
The lessor shall transfer title of the motor vehicle to the manufacturer
as necessary to effectuate the consumer's rights pursuant to this
Article, whether the consumer chooses vehicle replacement or refund.
(c) Refunds shall be made to the consumer, lessor and any lienholders
as their interests may appear. The refund to the consumer shall
be reduced by a reasonable allowance for the consumer's use of the
vehicle. A reasonable allowance for use is that amount directly
attributable to use by the consumer prior to his first report of
the nonconformity to the manufacturer, its agent, or its authorized
dealer, and during any subsequent period when the vehicle is not
out of service because of repair. "Reasonable allowance" is presumed
to be the cash price or the lease price, as the case may be, of
the vehicle multiplied by a fraction having as its denominator 100,000
miles and its numerator the number of miles attributed to the consumer.
(d) If a manufacturer, its agent, or its authorized dealer resells
a motor vehicle that was returned pursuant to this Article or any
other State's applicable law, regardless of whether there was any
judicial determination that the motor vehicle had any defect or
that it failed to conform to all express warranties, the manufacturer,
its agent, or its authorized dealer shall disclose to the subsequent
purchaser prior to the sale:
(1) That the motor vehicle was returned pursuant to this Article
or pursuant to the applicable law of any other State; and
(2) The defect or condition or series of defects or conditions
which substantially impaired the value of the motor vehicle to
the consumer. Any subsequent purchaser who purchases the motor
vehicle for resale with notice of the return, shall make the required
disclosures to any person to whom he resells the motor vehicle.
(1987, c. 385; 1989, c. 43, s. 1, c. 519, s. 1.)
§ 20-351.4. Affirmative defenses.
It is an affirmative defense to any claim under this Article that
an alleged nonconformity or series of nonconformities are the result
of abuse, neglect, odometer tampering by the consumer or unauthorized
modifications or alterations of a motor vehicle.
(1987, c. 385.)
§ 20-351.5. Presumption.
(a) It is presumed that a reasonable number of attempts have been
undertaken to conform a motor vehicle to the applicable express
(1) The same nonconformity has been presented for repair to
the manufacturer, its agent, or its authorized dealer four or
more times but the same nonconformity continues to exist; or
(2) The vehicle was out of service to the consumer during or
while awaiting repair of the nonconformity or a series of nonconformities
for a cumulative total of 20 or more business days during any
12-month period of the warranty, provided that the consumer has
notified the manufacturer directly in writing of the existence
of the nonconformity or series of nonconformities and allowed
the manufacturer a reasonable period, not to exceed 15 calendar
days, in which to correct the nonconformity or series of nonconformities.
The manufacturer must clearly and conspicuously disclose to the
consumer in the warranty or owners manual that written notification
of a nonconformity is required before a consumer may be eligible
for a refund or replacement of the vehicle and the manufacturer
shall include in the warranty or owners manual the name and address
where the written notification may be sent. Provided, further,
that notice to the manufacturer shall not be required if the manufacturer
fails to make the disclosures provided herein.
(b) The consumer may prove that a defect or condition substantially
impairs the value of the motor vehicle to the consumer in a manner
other than that set forth in subsection (a) of this section.
(c) The term of an express warranty, the one-year period, and
the 20-day period shall be extended by any period of time during
which repair services are not available to the consumer because
of war, strike, or natural disaster.
(1987, c. 385.)
§ 20-351.6. Civil action by the Attorney General.
Whenever, in his opinion, the interests of the public require
it, it shall be the duty of the Attorney General upon his ascertaining
that any of the provisions of this Article have been violated by
the manufacturer to bring a civil action in the name of the State,
or any officer or department thereof as provided by law, or in the
name of the State on relation of the Attorney General.
(1987, c. 385.)
§ 20-351.7. Civil action by the consumer.
A consumer injured by reason of any violation of the provisions
of this Article may bring a civil action against the manufacturer;
provided, however, the consumer has given the manufacturer written
notice of his intent to bring an action against the manufacturer
at least 10 days prior to filing such suit. Nothing in this section
shall prevent a manufacturer from requiring a consumer to utilize
an informal settlement procedure prior to litigation if that procedure
substantially complies in design and operation with the Magnuson-Moss
Warranty Act, 15 USC § 2301 et seq., and regulations promulgated
thereunder, and that requirement is written clearly and conspicuously,
in the written warranty and any warranty instructions provided to
(1987, c. 385.)
§ 20-351.8. Remedies.
In any action brought under this Article, the court may grant
(1) A permanent or temporary injunction or other equitable relief
as the court deems just;
(2) Monetary damages to the injured consumer in the amount fixed
by the verdict. Such damages shall be trebled upon a finding that
the manufacturer unreasonably refused to comply with G.S. 20-351.2
or G.S. 20-351.3. The jury may consider as damages all items listed
for refund under G.S. 20-351.3;
(3) A reasonable attorney's fee for the attorney of the prevailing
party, payable by the losing party, upon a finding by the court
a. The manufacturer unreasonably failed or refused to fully
resolve the matter which constitutes the basis of such action;
b. The party instituting the action knew, or should have known,
the action was frivolous and malicious.
(1987, c. 385.)
§ 20-351.9. Dealership liability.
No authorized dealer shall be held liable by the manufacturer
for any refunds or vehicle replacements in the absence of evidence
indicating that dealership repairs have been carried out in a manner
substantially inconsistent with the manufacturers' instructions.
This Article does not create any cause of action by a consumer against
an authorized dealer.
(1987, c. 385.)
§ 20-351.10. Preservation of other remedies.
This Article does not limit the rights or remedies which are otherwise
available to a consumer under any other law.
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